Theoretical Science: Super-senses


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During my hiatus (sorry about the hiatus, by the way), I finally got the chance to watch Daredevil, Marvel’s 2015 Netflix hit.


It wasn’t until Season 2 that my willing suspension of disbelief started to wane.

In an early episode of Season 2, someone tests to see if Matt is actually blind by checking for pupil contraction. Now, this is a bad test for blindness–pupil contraction is a reflex, meaning it pretty much goes on, even if the visual cortex (part of the brain associated with sight) is damaged. As long as you’ve got an optic nerve, your pupils will contract when there’s bright light in your face. (This is my understanding; I’m not an expert.)

Not all blindness occurs from damage to the eyes. (No wonder the Yakuza never get anywhere if they’re this stupid.)

However, later in the same season, Matt gets shot with an arrow and there’s a close-up of his eyes dilating. I’m calling bull on this one. If his pupils don’t contract in bright light, why would they dilate as a response to pain? Either his optic nerves aren’t damaged or they are. Seriously, Marvel. Consistency. Heard of it?

I’m going with the instance when Matt’s pupils failed to contract as that’s an actual plot point, not just something someone thought would look cool.

Hence, we can proceed on the assumption that the accident Matt was in as a child, giving him superpowers, resulted in (absolutely) damage to his optic nerves and (probably) damage to his eyes, as well.

It’s possible that Matt also suffered a head injury during the accident, damaging the visual cortex–but, since the nerves are, apparently, damaged, that’s mere speculation with no actual canon foundation.

On to his actual powers.

Matt’s powers are rooted in the fact that his brain doesn’t filter out seemingly extraneous sensory data.

In plain English, all of us could have supersenses, but to avoid crippling confusion and becoming overwhelmed, our brains filter out all the thousands of sensory impressions that aren’t immediately relevant.

Matt most likely has a sensory processing disorder–his variant is he experiences everything without a filter, which is where Stick comes in. Stick taught Matt how to manage all that data and assemble it into a coherent picture. It takes intense focus to not become overwhelmed.

It’s possible that the sensory processing disorder was caused by a head injury. Alternately, Matt may have had some form of SPD and it was exacerbated by the accident. (Don’t quote me on this. Again, not an expert.)

I can’t say if Matt’s senses are actually more perceptive than the average human’s (Stan Lee says they are, I think?), but his brain certainly doesn’t seem to filter out all the data most people would not experience because it wasn’t prioritized in their brain.

Matt also appears to have a nearly-eidetic memory (in the comics and to an extent in the show.) This, again, could have been something he had before the accident, but didn’t really notice until after.

(Some fans believe that Matt is autistic. I lean that way a bit, but I don’t know enough about it to actually have an opinion.)

If Matt’s visual cortex wasn’t damaged, it’s possible that he adapted to his blindness and his brain sort of repurposed itself to route some of the sensory data through there. (Humans’ ability to recover and adapt is insane, y’all.)

If we take the toxic-waste-enhanced element (and possibility to hear heartbeats–I don’t know if people can do that in real life…) away, Matt’s powers absolutely have an analog in the real world. Whether or not Matt’s senses are actually enhanced to an insane degree (like Stan Lee asserts), Matt’s powers are a tribute to the incredible degree to which people can adapt to things.

If anything in this post was in error, please let me know and I’ll correct it. Hopefully you all enjoyed my analysis!


Lenten Reflections


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Today I’m thinking about redesigning my blog somewhat. I recently learned how to add HTML tags to change the appearance of text in WordPress, but I’m not going to do something that radical. I’m probably just going to change my preferences for default text. I’m also considering redoing my header images and changing my theme.

It’s spring. Spring cleaning time. I want to rearrange the furniture.

It’s also Lent.

As always, about halfway through Lent, I always have to take a step back. Resisting the temptation to eat candy is easy after about a week, and I start to forget why I’m doing this.

Obviously the intent of giving something up for Lent is to bring us closer to God. However, I have to ask myself if I’m being too easy on myself–if I should be giving up something else instead, if I should get creative.

Giving up TV? I barely watch it any more. Giving up the Internet? Pretty much impossible, what with school and work requirements. And giving up leisure Internet time is out of the question, too–the spirit is willing, but the flesh is very weak. I deleted a bunch of casual games off my phone, too–after a week where I wasn’t constantly distracted, I didn’t miss those any more, either.

This Lent, I plan to try to fast more–not necessarily the full fast, but at least giving up little snacks and whatnot. Just as a self-control thing.

But maybe it’s not a question of what I shouldn’t be doing, but what I should.

Maybe it’s time to get away from the computer in my downtime and sew those dresses that have been sitting on the dining room table for a year.

Maybe it’s time to grab my sister (, hello sweetie 😉 ) and start planning our garden for this year. (It. Is. Going. To. Happen. This. Time. People!)

Maybe it’s time to just hang out with my youngest sister a bit more.

And to stay on track, maybe I should try journaling again. Or meditation.

Ultimately, Lent is for us. It’s not about restrictions. It’s about growth.

Parce, Domine, parce populo tuo, ne in aeternum irascaris nobis.

RotoVegas Author Interview


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As part of the Independent Christian Book Black Friday Sale Blog Tour (you can read my previous post here,) I had the chance to interview Grace Bridges, author of RotoVegas, which is the first book of her EarthCore series. Urban fantasy is a bit of an unusual genre, with fantasy elements in an urban setting; it tends to be grittier than classic fantasy, which can be a fun twist. I was also fascinated, as if you look through most “Christian fiction” sections in a bookstore or magazine, most of what you will see is romance or bonnet-and-buggy fiction, and then a few Ted Dekker thrillers, and that’s normally it. Don’t ask me why the “Christian fiction” label is so limited when Christian fiction really has the potential to be so all-encompassing, but it is.

On to the interview!

First of all, what inspired you to write urban fantasy? It seems like an unusual sub-genre.
Actually I didn’t realise its genre until long after it was written. I wanted to write something with superpowers resulting from New Zealand’s geothermal sources, and initially that suggested science fiction as most superhero stories tend to be. However, as I wrote, cultural elements fitted in so naturally that it was no longer simply a matter of science. It became more about the powerful invisible dragons who live in and around each geothermal site – this is a well-known aspect of local Māori lore. With the addition of dragons, it became fantasy; with the location in a small city, it became urban.
One-sentence summary. Go!
Superpowers from hot springs – who knew? Creatures making their homes in the untamed thermal sources of New Zealand have a job for Anira to do.
What do you think is unique about your book?
It’s set in New Zealand, my home. Ever heard of a story set in the city of Rotorua? Me either. So I thought it was about time.
What real-world inspirations and influences fed into your book?
All of the settings and city locations are real. In Rotorua, geothermal activity is a fact of daily life. Steam rises from drains and yards. Unstable geysers appear and disappear around the tumultuous lake edge and city park, while stable ones have erupted every hour for as long as people have lived in the area. Isn’t it the perfect environment to add fantasy creatures and supernatural powers?
I saw this on Tumblr–describe your writing process in three words or less.
Subscene (once I’ve planned to scene level, I divide each scene into bite-sized subsections immediately before writing it)
Neo (I use a typewriter-like distraction-free Alphasmart Neo device for the actual writing)
Steampunk, cyberpunk, high or dark fantasy and urban fantasy appear to be part of a trend of aesthetic fiction–e.g., fiction with strong visuals or visual inspirations. How did visuals and aesthetic shape “RotoVegas”?
Rotorua, nicknamed RotoVegas for its cute little tourist strip, is a city with a completely unique aesthetic. Ancient volcanic craters form the lake and its island, the surrounding hills of the caldera, the looming Mt. Tarawera nearby with its fearsome crater from end to end. To say nothing of the mineral steam that permeates its atmosphere from the many thermal vents, hot streams, and so on. This is a place I know well. I have been careful to describe it in accurate detail, and I can’t wait to take you along for the journey!
What do you want readers to take home with them after reading “RotoVegas”?
A sense of wonder at the very real forces in the Earth’s crust and what they can do; a fun and satisfying adventure beyond reality into the realm of what-if and imagination.
Bonus Content: 
Author’s video of some geothermal areas in a Rotorua city park:
How to say “Rotorua” (at 2:42 in this video, I’ve set it to start at that point)
From November 24th-30th a huge selection of discounted books is available at You can also join the Indie Christian Authors for a week-long Facebook party during the same dates, or visit for more information. There’s also a giveaway–visit for that.



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As part of this year’s Black Friday Christian Book Sale Blog Tour, I had the opportunity to read Implant by J. Grace Pennington to review it. When reading it, I couldn’t put it down–it was a fast read, not too in-depth but engaging all the same.

The book’s concept–a medical miracle implant which can cure cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and practically all other diseases, but which has been turned into a way to control people–is what drew me to the story.

The main strength of this book is certainly its characters. Gordon Harding just wants to be a nice person–he doesn’t want to fight, but he ultimately has to take a stand. Neil Crater, an intelligent man trapped in a nightmare world, unsure of who to trust. Doc, who doesn’t want anyone to know his real name.

However, outside of those main three, there are only a few other characters who are fully fleshed-out. I wish they had all gotten more development.

Secondly, the setting. When I was reading the main action of the book, I saw a bombed-out Wild West town surrounded by tents in my mind’s eye. Post-apocalyptic and similar genres aren’t often setting-rich, focusing on characters instead.

And finally, the main premise. Gordon Harding is someone who wants to live. By the end of the book, he becomes someone willing to sacrifice his life, and someone who is willing to avert the future he’s been a part of.

What bothered me about this book was I didn’t feel very connected to anyone outside of the three main characters. Also, I began to see the main major plot twist coming from about 50 pages in, though maybe that’s because I read so much fiction. When a character’s real name is not revealed, there’s always a reason for it. (Unless you’re watching Doctor Who. Then it’s just artistic choice.)

One thing I was relieved about, reading the book: this book does not involve mind control. I feel that mind control and other forms of zombie-ism are overused in fiction–I much prefer when the characters have the free will to make their own (right or wrong) choices. There’s something powerful in that–perhaps more powerful than the pedantic trope of “oh, he did it against his own will!”

I do feel that the ending may have been a bit of a cop-out. However, as that same cop-out was very much a part of making everything worse before the climax, I can excuse it.

Another thing I would have liked to see more of would be Gordon trying to rejoin society after his big adventure. After all, you’ve just had a life-changing experience. What do you do now?

All in all, I would give this book 3.7 out of five stars.

From November 24th-30th a huge selection of discounted books is available at You can also join the Indie Christian Authors for a week-long Facebook party during the same dates, or visit for more information. There’s also a giveaway–visit for that.




Rosalie of Against the Shadows wrote a poem that inspired me to write and just put out my thoughts. It was cathartic. I haven’t had that happen in a while.

I’m sorry I haven’t been around much. Hopefully my poem will do the explaining for me.


Dry coughs and chalk dust and cobwebs and house dust

mark out the space between nightfall and daybreak

Punctuated by study sessions of the night hours

And dreams of missed assignments and tests

Barely bothered to care.

The school is restless.

I haven’t had a moment’s peace in months

Between deadlines and crying children

Who were too old to cry in the first place

And the year is dying and it’s turning cold again

(my geranium is dead. I meant to bring it in)

Carols are here already as they try to ignore

The dead part of the year

October is an attempt to romanticize the brown

Before Christmas.

It’s that part of the semester again.

Legendary Weapons: Katanas and Damascus Steel


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What is it about historical weaponry that draws the minds and captures the imaginations of readers and writers alike?

Historical weapons are a stable of urban fantasy and the superhero genre, as well as historical fiction and fantasy, where they find a more predictable home. Over the years, swords, bows, maces, and battleaxes have been–understandably–superseded by firearms. So why the lingering attraction, when firearms have superior rate of fire, force, and accuracy? Is it the elegance of the weapons (now lost in an era of mass manufacture) which were once lovingly handcrafted, delicately inlaid or inscribed, and bound by hand? Or is it the appeal of an era when war held more honor and less horror, when, to kill a man, you first had to look him in the face? Is it the superiority of the skill required?

This series of articles will examine historical weapons of mass destruction, legendary sword-making techniques of both the East and the West, and address common misconceptions about modern weaponry. As the sword is, without rival, the weapon of choice in fantasy, I will publish the article on historical sword-making first.

Katana. Damascus steel blades. Legendary names for weapons created using strikingly similar techniques, creating a similar product–a high-carbon steel edge over a softer iron core.

The techniques used to create Damascus steel were once thought lost to time. Only recently have they been recreated, following the discovery of carbon nanotubes hiding underneath the iridescent sheen and wood-grained appearance of the surface.

The steel in Damascus blades and katana–called “Damascus steel” in the West and “tamahagane” in Japan–is smelted in a remarkably similar way. Broken iron ore (or iron sand, called “satetsu” in Japan) is heated with plant material–wood or bamboo for Damascus steel, charcoal in Japan–which then infuses the metal with carbon. In Damascus steel, this has the added benefit of transferring carbon nanotubes from the plant matter into the steel itself, rendering the steel remarkably hard.

However, high-carbon steel is brittle, easily broken, and this process leaves a steel-iron amalgam that is high in both metallic and organic impurities.

This is where the second major technique involved in making these legendary blades comes in. It’s called pattern welding. Steel is heated, folded on itself, beaten until the layers merge, shedding impurities and excess carbon in the process. This creates a more homogeneous steel, varying layers of harder and more brittle steel with softer layers of less brittle iron, creating a tough final product. The metallic trace impurities merge with the blade, creating a better end product than pure steel alone. However, the process must be carefully monitored, as higher temperatures can cause the iron to separate from the carbon, and, if folded too many times, the steel loses the advantage of strength and flexibility as the layers merge entirely. The folding pattern is dependent on the part of the blade the steel will form.

In Japan, the art of sword-making was historically considered a sacred ritual, and may take weeks to complete. In Japanese sword-making, a low-carbon steel/iron amalgam is used to create the core of the blade, a slightly-harder but still resilient steel to form the skin, and the high-carbon tamahagane for the edge. This results in a hard-edged blade which holds an edge well while still being springy and flexible enough to resist breakage. The steel must also be protected between foldings by a layer of wet clay and straw ash, to prevent the iron from oxidizing and help remove impurities. Due to the loss of impurities, the iron may be reduced to as little as 1/10 of its initial weight.

Finally, katanas and other Japanese swords are heat-treated, rather than quenched like European-made blades are. Before the swords are heated, a thin layer of clay is added around the edge so that it cools more quickly than the thickly-coated back edge. This results in a harder edge and a springier spine, as well as bending the sword into its signature curve.

And a word about the so-called “blood channel” or fuller: the purpose of the fuller is not to allow blood to flow more freely and allow the sword to be more easily withdrawn from the wound, but to make the blade lighter without sacrificing its structural integrity.

The blade is then polished, which takes easily as much skill to complete, since a bad polishing job can damage a sword, while a good one can render it mirror-like and perfectly smooth.

In my next article, I will talk about crossbows–a weapon so deadly that their use was banned in warfare by the Pope.

Rethinking Obsolescence: Reclaimed Wood and DIY Culture


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Reclaimed wood is big business these days. A simple Google search turns up millions of shopping results and billions of pictures, ideas, and Pinterest boards or Instagram photos. Reclaimed wood can go for prices from $7 to $25 per square foot, and it’s being sold by big companies. In comparison, new wood can be sold for prices as low as $3 per square foot.

I’m serious.

That’s roughly equivalent trying to collect royalties on an expired copyright and making someone pay for the same service twice. It’s shady, it’s borderline unethical, and it’s really, really annoying.

In short, they are making people pay for a used item, and not even for charity. For profit. Am I the only one who sees something wrong with this?

Kitschy post-consumer culture puts reclaimed wood in demand. But, again, this is reclaimed wood. It’s already been used and paid for once. Sure, I’m all for reusing lumber and saving forests! But selling it for more than new?

Why make people pay more to be environmentally friendly?

I’d much rather go out and get my own. I’ll work for it, thank you very much. It’s my time and I’ll spend it how I like. After all, I’ve got more time than money.

Rant over.



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“Remember that you are dust and to dust you shall return.”

Somehow, those words sound strangely beautiful to me. They always have, but I haven’t quite been able to put words to why until lately.

Maybe part of the reason why can be found in two shows that I’ve watched recently.

In the season finale of the first season of Agents of Shield, Fitz and Simmons are locked in an airtight steel box at the bottom of the ocean with (almost) no way out, and they talk about dying, as one does in a steel box at the bottom of the ocean. “It’s not so bad,” Jemma says, “that the rough matter in us will one day be part of a star.” (Or something to that effect.

In “The Rings of Akhaten,” the Doctor has taken Clara on an adventure far beyond her place in time or space. They go to a distant planet, where they meet a little girl whose one duty is to sing a song. Time has run out since the Sun-Singers started, however, and the little girl is terrified, so the Doctor tells her a story: that she is the only one like her, that every element in her body was forged in the heart of a supernova, and that nowhere else in all of time and space is to be found that singular identity that forms her.

During our new pastor’s Ash Wednesday homily, he quoted a lesser-known corollary of these same words: “Remember, dust, that you are man,” referring to the Resurrection.

It is such a curious and glorious fate that God can create things that are more than the sum of their matter.

Clockwork Flight Earrings

I made a new thing on my design blog. Please go check it out!


These elegant, steampunk-inspired earrings required a bit of trial and error, but they were very fun to make.

I’ve always wanted to make a pair of steampunk earrings, but the ironic thing is I’d never thought about what a pair of steampunk earrings would look like. I’ve seen chandelier-style ones with lots of tiny charms, and I’ve seen ones which involved a lot of chains, brass and pewter.

But as I was looking through my collection of charms, something just clicked. Suddenly, I knew exactly what I was doing with those charms. I’d had the small wing, key and gear charms for a long time, and the filigree pieces for even longer. And now I had an idea what to do with them.

At first, I had no idea how many charms I should add. I started out with 7, but that was too many. They were really heavy and…

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